Publications at Duke



  • Y. Zhou, D. Grass, W.S. Warren, M. Fischer, Non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of artificially degraded CdS paints by pump-probe microscopy. J. Phys. Photonics 6(2): 025013 (2024). doi: 10.1088/2515-7647/ad3e65.
  • J.R. Lindale, L.L. Smith, M.W. Mammen, S.L. Eriksson, L.M. Everhart, W.S. Warren, Multi-axis fields boost SABRE hyperpolarization. PNAS 121(14): e2400066121 (2024). doi: 10.1073/pnas.2400066121.
  • D. Grass, M.A. Selim, G.M. Beaseley, M.C. Fischer,  W.S. Warren, A new biomarker for metastatic melanoma based on femtosecond pump-probe microscopy and supervised learning. Proc. SPIE PC12816, Photonics in Dermatology and Plastic Surgery 2024, PC128169K (2024). doi: 10.1117/12.2891938.
  • D. Grass, Identifying metastatic melanoma with pump-probe microscopy of melanin. Proc. SPIE PC12855, Advanced Chemical Microscopy for Life Science and Translational Medicine 2024, PC1285504 (2024). doi: 10.1117/12.2691939.


  • M.C. Fischer, Y. Zhou, H. Kastenholz, M. Topper, D. Grass, W. Warren, Prospects of pump-probe microscopy for revealing pigment identity and degradation. Proc. SPIE PC12620, Optics for Arts, Architecture, and Archaeology (O3A) IX, PC1262001 (2023). doi: 10.1117/12.2675050.
  • D. Grass, G.M. Beaseley, M.C. Fischer, M.A. Selim, Y. Zhou, W.S. Warren, Identifying metastatic melanoma with pump-probe microscopy of melanin. Proc. SPIE PC12392, Advanced Chemical Microscopy for Life Science and Translational Medicine 2023, PC123920F (2023). doi: 10.1117/12.2655705.
  • M.J. Melo, M. Ghirardello, A. Candeo, D. Comelli, C.Manzoni, M. Thoury, M. Réfrégiers, M. Oujja, M. Sanz, A. Dal Fovo, R. Fontana, M. Castillejo, Y. Zhou, H. Kastenholz, W.S. Warren, M.C. Fischer, Laboratory Instrumentation. In: Springer Series on Fluorescence. Springer, Cham. (2023). doi: 10.1007/4243_2023_46.
  • J.R. Lindale, S.L. Eriksson, W.S. Warren, Improved modeling of dynamic quantum systems using exact Lindblad master equations. Phys. Rev. A 108(1): 012806 (2023). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.108.012806.
  • W.S. Warren, Comment on: ‘Experimental indications of non-classical brain function’ 2022 Journal of Physics Communications 6 105001J. Phys. Commun. 7 038001 (2023). doi: 10.1088/2399-6528/acc4a8.


  • S.L. Eriksson, M.W. Mammen, C.W. Eriksson, J.R. Lindale, W.S. Warren, Multiaxial fields improve SABRE efficiency by preserving hydride order. J Mag Res. 342, 107282 (2022). PMID: 35970048.
  • D. Grass, G. M. Beasley, M. C. Fischer, M. A. Selim, Y. Zhou, W. S. Warren, (2022). Contrast mechanisms in pump-probe microscopy of melanin. Optics Express 30(18): 31852-31862. PMID: 36242259.
  • W.S. Warren, Beating the odds for journal acceptance. Sci Adv. 8(30), eadd9147 (2022). doi: 10.1126/sciadv.add9147.
  • S. L. Eriksson, J. R. Lindale, X. Li, W. S. Warren, Improving SABRE hyperpolarization with highly nonintuitive pulse sequences: Moving beyond avoided crossings to descibe dynamics. Sci. Adv. 8, eabl3708 (2022). doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abl3708. PMID: 35294248.
  • S. Degan, B. L. May, Y. J. Jin, M. B. Hammoda, H. Sun, G. Zhang, Y. Wang, D. Erdmann, W. S. Warren, J. Y. Zhang, Co-Treatment of Chloroquine and Trametinib Inhibits Melanoma Cell Proliferation and Decreases Immune Cell Infiltration. Front. Oncol. 2022 Jun 30;12:782877. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2022.782877PMID: 35847840.
  • X. Li, J. R. Lindale, S. L. Eriksson, W. S. Warren, SABRE enhancement with oscillating pulse sequences. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 24, 16462-16470 (2022). doi: 10.1039/d2cp00899h. PMID: 35552575.
  • J. R. Lindale, S. L. Eriksson,  W. S. Warren, Phase coherent excitation of SABRE permits simultaneous hyperpolarization of multiple targets at high magnetic field. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 24, 7214-7223 (2022). doi: 10.1039/d1cp05962a. PMID: 35266466.
  • W.S. Warren, Earning the public’s trust. Sci Adv. 8, eabo6347 (2022). doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abo6347. PMID: 35263145.
  • H. Park, S. Eriksson, W.S. Warren, and Q. Wang, Design, synthesis and evaluation of 15N- and 13C-labeled molecular probes as hyperpolarized nitric oxide sensors. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 72, 116969 (2022). PMID: 36029732.
  • S. Nantogma, S.L. Eriksson, I. Adelabu, I. Mandzhieva, A. Browning, P. TomHon, W.S. Warren, T. Theis, B.M. Goodson, E.Y. Chekmenev, Interplay of Near-Zero-Field Dephasingm Rephasing, and Relaxation Dynamics and [1-13C] Pyruvate Polarization Tranfer Efficiency in Pulsed SABRE-SHEATH. J. Phys. Chem. A 126(48): 9114-9123 (2022). doi: 10.1021/acs.jpca.2c07150. PMID: 36441955.


  • J. Jiang, D. Grass, Y. Zhou, W. S. Warren, M. C. Fischer, (2021). “Beyond intensity modulation: new approaches to pump-probe microscopy.” Optics Letters 46(6): 1474-1477 (2021). doi: 10.1364/OL.417905. PMID: 33720215.
  • G. C. McKeown Wessler, T. Wang, J. Sun, Y. Liao, M. C. Fischer, V. Blum, D. B. Mitzi, (2021). “Structural, Optical, and Electronic Properties of Two Quaternary Chalcogenide Semiconductors: Ag2SrSiS4 and Ag2SrGeS4.” Inorg. Chem. 60(16): 12206–12217. doi: 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c01416
  • J. Bae, G. Zhang, H. Park, W. S. Warren, Q. Wang, (2021). “15N-Azides as practical and effective tags for developing long-lived hyperpolarized agents.” Chemical Science 12(42): 14309-14315. doi: 10.1039/d1sc04647k. PMID: 34760217.


  • J. R. Lindale, S. L. Eriksson, C. P. Tanner, W. S. Warren, Infinite-order perturbative treatment for quantum evolution with exchange. Sci. Adv. 6, eabb6874 (2020). doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abb6874. PMID: 32821841.
  • H. Park, G. Zhang, J. Bae, T. Theis, W.S. Warren, Q. Wang, “Application of 15N2-Diazirines as a Versatile Platform for Hyperpolarization of Biological Molecules by d-DNP,” Bioconjug Chem, 31(3):537-541 (2020).  doi: 10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.0c00028. PMID: 32023034.
  • J.F.P. Colell, A.W.J. Logan, Z. Zhou, J.R. Lindale, R. Laasner, R. Shchepin, E. Chekmenev, V. Blum, W.S. Warren, S.J. Malcolmson, T. Theis, “Rational Ligand Choice Extends the SABRE Substrate Scope,” Chem Commun, 56, 9336-9339 (2020). doi: 10.1039/d0cc01330g. PMID: 32671356.
  • W.S. Warren, D. Grass, M.C. Fischer, “Nonlinear Pump-Probe Microscopy Improves Early Detection of Metastatic Melanoma,” Bull Amer Phys Soc (2020). Abstract.
  • J. Jiang, W.S. Warren, M.C. Fischer, “Crossed-Beam Pump-Probe Microscopy,” Optics Express 28 (8) 11259-11266 (2020). doi: 10.1364/OE.389004. PMID: 32403640.
  • M.E. Gemeinhardt, M.N. Limbach, T.R. Beghardt, C.W. Eriksson, S.L. Eriksson, J.R. Lindale, E.A. Goodson, W.S. Warren, E.Y. Chekmenev,B.M. Goodson, “Direct 13C Hyperpolarization of 13C-Acetate by MicroTesla NMR Signal Amplification by Reversible Exchange(SABRE),”Angewandte Chemie (Int’l ed. in English) 59, 418-423 (2020).  doi: 10.1002/anie.201910506. PMID: 31661580.
  • E.P. Fischer, M.C. Fischer, D. Grass, I. Henrion, W.S. Warren, E. Westman, “Low-Cost Measurement of Face Mask Efficacy for Filtering Expelled Droplets During Speech,” Sci Adv 6 (36), (2020). doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abd3083. PMID: 32917603.


  • J.R. Lindale, S.L. Eriksson, C.P.L. Tanner, Z. Zhou, J.F.P. Colell, G. Zhang, J. Bae, E.Y. Chekmenev, T. Theis, W.S. Warren,  “Unveiling Coherently Driven Hyperpolarization Dynamics in Signal Amplification by Reversible Exchange”, Nat Commun. 10, 395 (2019)  doi:  10.1038/s41467-019-08298-8. PMID: 30674881.
  • R.V. Shchepin, J.R. Birchall, N.V. Chukanov, K.V. Kovtunov, I.V. Koptyug, T. Theis, W.S. Warren, J.G. Gelovan, B.M. Goodson, S. Shokouhi, M.S. Rosen, Y.F. Yen, W. Pham, E.Y. Chekmenev, “Hyperpolarizing Concentrated Metronidazole 15NO2 Group Over Six Chemical Bonds with More than 15% Polarization and 20 Minute Lifetime,” Chemistry. 25, 8829-8836 (April 9, 2019).  doi: 10.1002/chem.201901192. PMID: 30964568.
  • K-Y Ju, S. Degan, M.C. Fischer, K.C. Zhou, X. Jia, J. Yu, W.S. Warren, “Unraveling the Molecular Nature of Melanin Changes in Metastatic Cancer,” J Biomed Opt. 24(5): 1-13 (2019). doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.24.5.051414PMID: 30977334
  • J. Yu, M.C. Fischer, W.S. Warren, “Visualization of Vermilion Degradation Using Pump-Probe Microscopy,” Sci Adv 5 (2019) eaaw3136. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw3136. PMID: 31245540.
  • F.E. Robles, D. Sanghamitra, L. Vajzovic, G.K. Vora, P. Mruthyunajaya, W.S. Warren, “Analysis of Melanin Structure and Biochemical composition in Conjuntival Melanocytic Lesions Using Pump-Probe Microscopy,” Trans Vision Sci & Tech. 8, 33  (2019).  doi: 10.1167/tvst 8.3.33. PMID: 31183249.
  • G. Zhang, J.F.P. Colell, T. Glachet, J.R. Lindale, V. Reboul, T. Theis, W.S. Warren, “Terminal Diazirines Enable Reverse Polarization Transfer from (15) N2 Singlets,” Angewandte Chemie (Int’l ed. in English). 58, 11118-11124 (2019).  doi: 10.1002/anie.201904026. PMID: 31168901.
  • N.M. Ariyasingha, J.R. Lindale, S.L. Eriksson, G.P. Clark, T. Theis, R.V. Shchepin, N.V. Chukanov, K.V. Kovtunov, I.V. Koptyug, W.S. Warren, E.Y. Chekmenev, “Quasi-Resonance Fluorine-19 Signal Amplification by Reversible Exchange,” J Phys Chem Letters. 10, 15, 4229-4236 (2019). doi: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.9b01505. PMID: 31291106.
  • C.P.N. Tanner, J.R. Lindale, S.L. Eriksson, Z. Zhou, J.F.P. Colell, T. Theis, W.S. Warren, “Selective Hyperpolarization of Heteronuclear Singlet States Via Pulsed Microtesla SABRE,” J Chem Physics. 151(4): 044201 (2019).  doi: 10.1063/1.5108644. PMID: 31370556.
  • T. Glachet, H. Marzag, R.N. Saraiva, J.F.P. Colell, G. Zhang, W.S. Warren, X. Franck, T. Theis, V. Reboul, “Iodonitrene in Action: Direct Transformation of Amino Acids into Terminal Diazirines and 15N2-Diazirines and Their Application as Hyperpolarized Markers,” J Am Chem Soc. 141, 34, 13689–13696 (2019). doi: 10.1021/jacs.9b07035. PMID: 31373802.
  • J.R. Lindale, C.P.N. Tanner, S.L. Eriksson, W.S. Warren, “Decoupled LIGHT-SABRE Variants Allow Hyperpolarization of Asymmetric SABRE Systems at an Arbitrary Field,” J Magn Reson. 307, 106577 (2019).  doi: 10.1016/j.jmr.2019.106577. PMID: 31454701.
  • W.S. Warren, “Introduction to Special Collection on New Scientific Methods for Cultural Heritage,” Sci Adv. 5(10): eaaz3323 (2019).  doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aaz3323PMID: 31616797.
  • J. Yu, Z-G Li, C. kolodziej, S. Kuyuldar, W.S. Warren, C. Burda, M.C. Fischer, “Visualizing the Impact of Chloride Addition on the Microscopic Carrier Dynamcs of MAPbI3 Thin Films using Femtosecond Transient Absorption Microscopy,” J Chem Phys. 151(23): 234710 (2019). doi: 10.1063/1512785PMID: 31864238.


  • J. Bae, Z. Zhou, T. Theis, W.S. Warren, Q. Wang, “15 N4-1,2,4,5-Tetrazines as Potential Molecular Tags:  Integrating Bioorthogonal Chemistry with Hyperpolarization and Uncovering para-N2“, Sci Adv. 2018, 4(3): eaar2978 (2018). doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aar2978. PMID: 29536045.
  • K-Y Ju, M.C. Fischer, W.S. Warren, “Understanding the Role of Aggregation in the Broad Absorption Bands of Eumelanin.”  Acs Nano 12(12): 12050–12061 (2018) doi: 10.1021/acsnano.8b04905. PMID: 30500158.
  • T. Theis, N.M. Ariyasingha, R.V. Shchepin, J.R. Lindale, W.S. Warren, E.Y. Chekmenev, “Quasi-Resonance Signal Amplification by Reversible Exchange,” J Phys Chem Lett 9,  6136-6142 (2018).  doi: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.8b02669. PMID: 30284835.
  • J. Yu, W.S. Warren, M.C. Fischer, “Spectroscopic Differentiation and Microscopic Imaging of Red Organic Pigments Using Optical Pump-Probe Contrast,” Anal Chem 90, 12686-12691 (2018).  doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem8b02949. PMID: 30350615.
  • E. Ghadiri, D. Shin, A. Shafiee, W.S. Warren, D.B. Mitzi, “Grain-Resolved Ultrafast Photophysics in Cu2BaSnS4_xSex Semiconductors Using Pump-Probe Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy and Microscopy,” ACS Appli Mater Interfaces 10, 39615-39623 (2018). doi: 10.1021/acsami.8b12307. PMID: 30350945.


  • J.F.P. Colell,  M. Edmondts, A.W.J. Logan, K. Shen, J. Bae, R.V. Shchepin, G.X. Ortiz Jr, P. Spannring, Q. Wang, S.J. Malcolmson, E.Y. Chekmenevy, M. C. Fischer, F. P. J. T. Rutjes, Bernhard Blümich, T. Theis, W.S. Warren, Direct Hyperpolarization of Nitrogen-15 in Aqueous Media with Parahydrogen in Reversible Exchange. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 139 (23): 7761-7767 (2017). PMID: 28443329.
  • ​​​​​​​Z. Zhou, J. Yu, J.F.P. Colell R. Laasner, A. Logan, D.A. Barskiy, R.V. Shchepin, E.Y. Chekmenev, V. Blum, W.S.Warren, T. Theis, “Long-Lived 13C2 Nuclear Spin States Hyperpolarized by Parahydrogen in Reversible Exchange at Microtesla Fields.” J Phys Chem Lett 8(13): 3008-3014 (2017). PMID: 28594557.
  • J.W. Wilson, F.E. Robles, S. Deb, W.S. Warren, M.C. Fischer, “Comparison of Pump-Probe and Hyperspectral Imaging in Unstained Histology Sections of Pigmented Lesions.”  Biomed Opt Express 8(8): 3882-3890 (2017). PMID: 28856057.
  • K. Shen, A.W.J. Logan, J.F.P. Colell, J. Bae, G.X.Ortiz, Jr., T. Theis, W.S. Warren, S.J. Malcolmson, Q. Wang, “Diazirines as Potential Molecular Imaging Tags:  Probing the Requirements for Efficient and Long-Lived SABRE-Induced Hyperpolarization.”  Agnew Chem Int Ed Engl 56(40): 12280-12284 (2017). PMID: 28664640.
  • J.F.P. Colell,  A.W.J. Logan, Z. Zhou, R.V. Shchepin, D.A. Barskiy, G.X. Ortiz Jr, Q. Wang, S.J. Malcolmson, E.Y. Chekmenevy, W.S. Warren, and T. Theis,  “Generalizing, Extending, and Maximizing Nitrogen-15 Hyperpolarization Induced by Parahydrogen in Reversible Exchange.”  J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces.  121, 6626-6634 (2017). PMID: 28392884.
  • F.E. Robles, S. Deb, M.C. Fischer, W.S. Warren, and M.A. Selim, “Label-Free Imaging of Female Genital Tract Melanocytic Lesions with Pump-Probe Microscopy:  A Promising Diagnostic Tool”, J Low Genit Tract Dis.  21, 137-144 (2017).doi: 10.1097/LGT.0000000000000290. PMID: 28157824.
  • F.E. Robles, K.C. Zhou, M.C. Fischer, and W.S. Warren, “Stimulated Raman Scattering Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography”, Optica 4.2, 243-246 (2017). PMID: 29302608.
  • D.A. Barskiy, R.V. Shchepin, C.P.N Tanner, J.F.P. Colell,  B.M. Goodson, T. Theis, W.S. Warren, and E.Y. Chekmenevy,  “The Absence of Quadrupolar Nuclei Facilitates Efficient (13) C Hyperpolarization via Reversible Exchange with Parahydrogen”  Chem Phys Chem.  18(12):1493-1498 (2017). doi: 10.1002/cphc.201700416 PMID: 28517362.
  • C.J. Puza, W.S. Warren, and P.J. Mosca, “The changing landscape of dermatology practice: melanoma and pump-probe microscopy” Laser Med Sci. 32(9): 2173 (2017). PMID: 28890988.
  • R.V. Shchepin, B.M. Goodson, T. Theis, W.S. Warren, E.Y. Chekmenev , “Toward Hyperpolarized 19F Molecular Imaging via Reversible Exchange with Parahydrogen.” Chem Phys Chem. 18,1961-1965 (2017). doi: 10.1002/cphc.201700594. PMID: 28557156.
  • R.V. Shchepin, L. Jaigirdar, T. Theis, W.S. Warren, B.M. Goodson, E.Y. Chekmenev, “Spin Relays Enable Efficient Long-Range Heteronuclear Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange”,  J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces. 121(51):28425-28434 (2017). doi: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b11485. PMID: 29955243.


  • A. Thompson, F.E. Robles, J.W. Wilson, S. Deb, R. Calderbank, and W.S. Warren, “Dual-Wavelenth Pump-Probe Microscopy Analysis of Melanin Composition”, Sci Rep. 6, 36871 (2016). doi: 10.1038/srep36871. PMID: 27833147.
  • A.W.J. Logan, T. Theis, J.F.P. Colell, W.S. Warren, and S.J. Malcolmson, “Hyperpolarization of Nitrogen-15 Schiff Bases by Reversible Exchange Catalysis with para-Hydrogen”, Chem. Eur. J., 22, 10777-10781 (2016). doi: 10.1002/chem.201602393. PMID: 27218241.
  • R.V. Shchepin, D.A. Barskiy, A.M. Coffey, T. Theis, F. Shi, W.S. Warren, B.M. Goodson, and E.Y. Chekmenev, “15N Hyperpolarization of Imidazole-15N2 for Magnetic Resonance pH Sensing via SABRE-SHEATH”, ACS Sens., 1, 640-644 (2016). doi: 10.1021/acssensors.6b00231. PMID: 27379344.
  • T.E. Villafana, J.K. Delaney, W.S. Warren, and M.C. Fischer, “High-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of pigments and support in paper and textiles,” Journal of Cultural Heritage, 20, 583-588 (2016). doi: 10.1016/j.culher.2016.02.003
  • T. Theis, G.X. Ortiz Jr, A.W.J. Logan, K.E. Claytor, Y. Feng, W.P. Huhn, V. Blum, S.J. Malcolmson, E.Y. Chekmenev, Q. Wang, and W.S. Warren, “Direct and cost-efficient hyperpolarization of long-lived nuclear spin states on universal 15N2-diazirine molecular tags”, Science Advances, 2, E1501438 (2016). doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1501438 | PMID: 27051867
  • M.C. Fischer, J.W. Wilson, F.E. Robles, and W.S. Warren, “Invited Review Article: Pump-probe microscopy”, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 87, 031101 (2016). doi: 10.1063/1.4943211 | PMID: 27036751
  • F.E. Robles, M.C. Fischer, and W.S. Warren, “Dispersion-based stimulated Raman scattering spectroscopy, holography, and optical coherence tomography”, Opt. Express, 24, 485-498 (2016). doi: 10.1364/OE.24.000485 | PMID: 26832279
  • Z. Zhou, K.E. Claytor, W.S. Warren, and T. Theis, “Accessing long-lived 1H states via 2H coupling”, J. Magn. Reson., 263, 108-115 (2016). doi: 10.1016/j.jmr.2015.12.020 | PMID: 26774648
  • R.M. Davis, Z. Zhou, H. Chung, and W. S. Warren, “Multi-spin echo spatial encoding provides three-fold improvement of temperature precision during intermolecular zero quantum thermometry”, Magn Reson Med, 75, 1958-66 (2016). doi: 10.1002/mrm.25789 | PMID: 26077531.
  • D.A. Barskiy, R.V. Shchepin, A.M. Coffey, T. Theis, W.S. Warren, B.M. Goodson, E.Y. Chekmenev, “Over 20% (15)N Hyperpolarization in Under One Minute for Metronidazole, an Antibiotic and Hypoxia Probe”, J Am Chem Soc. 138(26): 8080-8083 (2016). doi: 10.1021/jacs.6b04784. PMID: 27321159.


  • F.E. Robles, S. Deb, J.W. Wilson, C.S. Gainey, M.A. Selim, P.J. Mosca, D.S. Tyler, M.C. Fischer, and W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe imaging of pigmented cutaneous melanoma primary lesions gives insight into metastatic potential”, Biomed Opt Express6, 3631-3645 (2015). doi: 10.1364/BOE.6.003631 | PMID: 26417529
  • M. L. Truong, T. Theis, A. M. Coffey, R. V. Shchepin, K. W. Waddell, F. Shi, B. Goodson, W. S. Warren, and E. Y. Chekmenev, “15N hyperpolarization by reversible exchange using SABRE-SHEATH”, J. Phys. Chem. C, 119(16), 8786-97 (2015). doi: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b01799 | PMID: 25960823
  • R. V. Schchepin, M. L. Truong, T. Theis, A. M. Coffey, F. Shi, K. W. Waddell, W. S. Warren, B. M. Goodson, and E. Y. Chekmenev, “Hyperpolarization of ‘neat’ liquids by NMR signal amplification by reversible exchange”, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 6(10), 1961-7 (2015). doi: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b00782 | PMID: 26029349
  • J. W. Wilson, J. K. Park, W. S. Warren, and M. C. Fischer, “Flexible digital signal processing architecture for narrowband and spread-spectrum lock-in detection in multiphoton microscopy and time-resolved spectroscopy”, Rev Sci Instrum. 86(3):033707, (2015). doi: 10.1063/1.4916261 | PMID: 25832238
  • T. Theis, M. L. Truong, A. M. Coffey, R. V. Shchepin, K. W. Waddell, F. Shi, B. M. Goodson BM, W. S. Warren, and E. Y. Chekmenev, “Microtesla SABRE enables 10% nitrogen-15 nuclear spin polarization”, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(4), 1404-7, (2015). doi: 10.1021/ja512242d | PMID: 25583142
  • J.W. Wilson, S. Degan, C.S. Gainey, T. Mitropoulos, M.J. Simpson, J.Y. Zhang, and W.S. Warren, “Comparing in vivo pump-probe and multiphoton fluorescence microscopy of melanoma and pigmented lesions”, J. Biomed. Opt., 20, 051012, (2015). doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.20.5.051012 | PMID: 25415567


  • J. K. Park, M. C. Fischer, K. Susumu, M. J. Therien, and W. S. Warren, “Femtosecond pulse train shaping improves two-photon excited fluorescence measurements,” Opt. Lett39, 5606 (2014). doi: 10.1364/OL.39.005606 | PMID:  25360939
  • K. Claytor, T. Theis, Y. Feng, J. Yu, D. Gooden, and W. S. Warren, “Accessing long-lived disconnected spin-½ eigenstates through spins > ½”, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 15118–15121 (2014). doi: 10.1021/ja505792j | PMID:  25229309
  • F.E. Robles, M.C. Fischer, and W.S. Warren, “Femtosecond pulse shaping enables detection of optical Kerr-effect (OKE) dynamics for molecular imaging”, Optics Letters, 39, 4788-4791(2014). doi: 10.1364/OL.39.004788 | PMID: 25121875
  • R.M. Davis and W.S. Warren, “Intermolecular zero quantum coherences enable accurate temperature imaging in red bone marrow”, Magn Reson Med, (2014).  doi: 10.1002/mrm.25372 | PMID: 25043195
  • T. Theis, M. Truong, A. Coffey, E. Chekmenev, and W. S. Warren, “LIGHT-SABRE enables efficient in-magnet catalytic hyperpolarization”, J. Magn. Reson., 248, 23-26 (2014). doi: 10.1016/j.jmr.2014.09.005 | PMID: 25299767
  • Y. Feng, T. Theis, T. Wu, K. Claytor, and W. S. Warren, “Long Lived Polarization Protected by Symmetry: LOLIPOPS”, J. Chem. Phys, 141, 134307 (2014). doi: 10.1063/1.4896895 | PMID: 25296806
  • T. Theis, Y. Feng, T. Wu, and W.S. Warren, “Composite and shaped pulses for efficient and robust pumping of disconnected eigenstates in magnetic resonance”, J. Chem. Phys.140, 014201 (2014). doi: 10.1063/1.4851337 | PMID: 24410222
  • T.E. Villafana, W.P. Brown, J.K. Delaney, M. Palmer, W.S. Warren, and M.C. Fischer, “Femtosecond pump-probe microscopy generates virtual cross-sections in historic artwork”, PNAS111, 1708-13 (2014).doi: 10.1073/pnas.1317230111 | PMID: 2449855
  • M.J. Simpson, J.W. Wilson, F. Robles, C. Dall, K. Glass, J. Simon, and W.S. Warren, “Near-infrared excited state dynamics of melanins: the effects of iron content, photo-damage, chemical oxidation, and aggregate size”, J Phys Chem A, 118, 993-1003 (2014). doi: 10.1021/jp4107475 | PMID: 24446774
  • K.E. Claytor, T. Theis, Y. Feng, and W.S. Warren, “Measuring Long-Lived 13C-Singlet State Lifetimes at Natural Abundance”, J Magn Reson239, 81-86  (2014). doi: 10.1016/j.jmr.2013.12.009 | PMID: 24457544


  • F.E. Robles, J.W. Wilson, and W.S. Warren, “Quantifying melanin spatial distribution using pump-probe microscopy and a two-dimensional morphological autocorrelation transformation for melanoma diagnosis”, J Biomed Opt18, 120502 (2013). doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.18.12.120502 | PMID: 24296994
  • J.W. Wilson, L. Vajzovic, F.E. Robles, T.J. Cummings, P. Mruthyunjaya, and W.S. Warren, “Imaging microscopic pigment chemistry in conjunctival lesions using pump-probe laser microscopy”, Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci54, 6867-76 (2013). doi: 10.1167/iovs.13-12432 | PMID: 24065811
  • R.T. Branca, L. Zhang, W.S. Warren, E. Auerbach, A. Khanna, S. Degan, K. Ugurbil, and R. Maronpot, “In Vivo Noninvasive Detection of Brown Adipose Tissue through Intermolecular Zero-Quantum MRI”, PLoS ONE8, e74206 (2013). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074206 | PMID: 24040203
  • F.E. Robles, P. Samineni, J.W. Wilson, and W.S. Warren, “Pump-probe nonlinear phase dispersion spectroscopy”, Optics Express21, 9353-9364 (2013). doi: 10.1364/OE.21.009353 | PMID: 23609646
  • Y. Feng, T. Theis, X. Liang, Q. Wang, P. Zhou, and W.S. Warren, “Storage of hydrogen spin polarization in long-lived 13C2 singlet order and implications for hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging”, Journal of the American Chemical Society135, 9632-9635 (2013). doi: 10.1021/ja404936p | PMID: 23781874
  • M.J. Simpson, K.E. Glass, J.W. Wilson, P.R. Wilby, J.D. Simon, and W.S. Warren, “Pump–probe microscopic imaging of Jurassic-aged eumelanin”, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 4, 1924–1927 (2013). doi: 10.1021/jz4008036 | PMID: 23847720
  • M.J. Simpson, J.W. Wilson, M.T. Phipps, F.E. Robles, M.A. Selim, and W.S. Warren, “Nonlinear microscopy of eumelanin and pheomelanin with sub-cellular resolution”, J Invest Dermatol133, 1822-1826 (2013). doi: 10.1038/jid.2013.37 | PMID: 23353985


  • B. Li, Y. Cheng, J. Liu, C. Yi, A.S. Brown, H. Yuan, T. Vo-Dinh, M.C. Fischer, and W.S. Warren, “Direct optical imaging of graphene in vitro by nonlinear femtosecond laser spectral reshaping”, Nano Lett12, 5936–5940 (2012). doi: 10.1021/nl303358p | PMID: 23101475
  • J.W. Wilson, S. Degan, W.S. Warren, and M.C. Fischer, “Optical clearing of archive-compatible paraffin embedded tissue for multiphoton microscopy”, Biomed Opt Express3, 2752-2760 (2012). doi: 10.1364/BOE.3.002752 | PMID: 23162713
  • A.M. Stokes, J.W. Wilson, and W.S. Warren, “Characterization of restricted diffusion in uni- and multi-lamellar vesicles using short distance iMQCs”, J Magn Reson223, 31-40 (2012). doi: 10.1016/j.jmr.2012.07.021 | PMID: 22975234
  • Y. Feng, R. Davis, and W.S. Warren, “Accessing long-lived nuclear singlet states between chemically equivalent spins without breaking symmetry”, Nature Physics8, 831–837 (2012). doi: 10.1038/NPHYS2425 | PMID: 23505397
  • M.F. Duarte, T.E. Matthews, W.S. Warren, and R. Calderbank (editors), “Melanoma Classification from Hidden Markov Tree Features”, Proc. 2012 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 685-688 (2012). doi: 10.1109/ICASSP.2012.6287976
  • F.E. Robles, J.W. Wilson, M.C. Fischer, and W.S. Warren, “Phasor analysis for nonlinear pump-probe microscopy”, Opt Lett20, 17082-17092 (2012). doi: 10.1364/OE.20.017082
  • B. Li, K.E. Claytor, H. Yuan, T. Vo-Dinh, W.S. Warren, and M.C. Fischer, “Multicontrast nonlinear optical microscopy with a compact and rapid pulse shaper”, Opt Lett37, 2763-5 (2012). doi: 10.1364/OL.37.002763 | PMID: 22743521
  • Y.M. Chen, R.T. Branca, and W.S. Warren, “Revisiting the mean-field picture of dipolar effects in solution NMR”, J Chem Phys136, 204509 (2012). doi: 10.1063/1.4721637 | PMID: 22667573
  • A.M. Stokes, Y. Feng, T. Mitropoulos, and W.S. Warren, “Enhanced refocusing of fat signals using optimized multipulse echo sequences”, Magn Reson Med, 69, 1044-55 (2012). doi: 10.1002/mrm.24340 | PMID: 22627966
  • J. Wilson, P. Samineni, W.S. Warren, and M.C. Fischer, “Cross-phase modulation spectral shifting: nonlinear phase contrast in a pump-probe microscope”, Biomed Opt Express3, 854-62 (2012). doi: 10.1364/BOE.3.000854 | PMID: 22567580
  • P. Samineni, A. DeCruz, T.E. Villafaña, W.S. Warren, and M.C. Fischer, “Pump-probe imaging of historical pigments used in paintings”, Opt Lett37, 1310 (2012). doi: 10.1364/OL.37.001310 | PMID: 22513669
  • J.H. Cho, K.S. Hong, J. Cho, S.K. Chang, C. Cheong, N.H. Lee, H. Kim, W.S. Warren, S. Ahn, and C. Lee, “Detection of iron-labeled single cells by MR imaging based on intermolecular double quantum coherences at 14T”, J Mag Reson217, 86-91 (2012).  doi: 10.1016/j.jmr.2012.02.014 | PMID: 22436467
  • P. Samineni, B. Li, J.W. Wilson, W.S. Warren, and M.C. Fischer, “Cross-phase modulation imaging”, Opt Lett37, 800-2 (2012).  doi: 10.1364/OL.37.000800 | PMID: 22378398


  • W.S. Warren, “Concentrated Solution Effects”, Encyclopedia of Magnetic Resonance (2011). doi: 10.1002/9780470034590.emrstm0088.pub2
  • T.E. Matthews, J.W. Wilson, S. Degan, M.J. Simpson, J.Y. Jin, J.Y. Zhang, and W.S. Warren, “In vivo and ex vivo epi-mode pump-probe imaging of melanin and microvasculature”, Biomed Opt Express2 (6), 1576-83 (2011). doi: 10.1364/BOE.2.001576 | PMID: 21698020
  • J. Kurhanewicz, D.B. Vigneron, K. Brindle, E.Y. Chekmenev, A. Comment, C.H. Cunningham, R.J. Deberardinis, G.G. Green, M.O. Leach, S.S. Rajan, R.R. Rizi, B.D. Ross, W.S. Warren, and C.R. Malloy, “Analysis of cancer metabolism by imaging hyperpolarized nuclei: prospects for translation to clinical research”, Neoplasia13 (2), 81-97 (2011). doi: 10.1593/neo.101102 | PMID: 21403835
  • T.E. Matthews, I.R. Piletic, M.A. Selim, M.J. Simpson, and W.S. Warren, “Pump-probe imaging differentiates melanoma from melanocytic nevi”, Sci Transl Med3 (71), 71ra15 (2011). doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3001604 | PMID: 21346168
  • R.T. Branca, E.R. Jenista, and W.S. Warren, “Inhomogeneity-free heteronuclear iMQC”, J Magn Reson209 (2), 347-51 (2011). doi: 10.1016/j.jmr.2011.01.018 | PMID: 21316278
  • R.T. Branca and W.S. Warren, “In vivo NMR detection of diet induced changes in adipose tissue composition”, J Lipid Res52 (4), 833-9 (2011). doi: 10.1194/jlr.D012468 | PMID: 21270099
  • B. Li, W.S. Warren, and M.C. Fischer, “Phase-cycling coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering using shaped femtosecond laser pulses”, Opt Express18 (25), 25825-32 (2011). doi: 10.1364/OE.18.025825 | PMID: 21164927
  • R.T. Branca and W.S. Warren, “In vivo brown adipose tissue detection and characterization using water-lipid intermolecular zero-quantum coherences”, Magn Reson Med65 (2), 313-9 (2011). doi: 10.1002/mrm.22622 | PMID: 20939093


  • I.R. Piletic, T.E. Matthews, and W.S. Warren, “Probing near-infrared photorelaxation pathways in eumelanins and pheomelanins”, J Phys Chem A114 (43), 11483-91 (2010). doi: 10.1021/jp103608d | PMID: 20882951
  • E.R. Jenista, R.T. Branca, and W.S. Warren, “Absolute temperature imaging using intermolecular multiple quantum MRI”, Int J Hyperthermia26 (7), 725-34 (2010). doi: 10.3109/02656736.2010.499527 | PMID: 20849265
  • P. Samineni, Z. Perret, W.S. Warren, and M.C. Fischer, “Measurements of nonlinear refractive index in scattering media”, Opt Express18 (12), 12727-35 (2010). doi: 10.1364/OE.18.012727 | PMID: 20588401
  • E.R. Jenista, G. Galiana, R.T. Branca, P.S. Yarmolenko, A.M. Stokes, M. W. Dewhirst, W.S. Warren, “Application of mixed spin iMQCs for temperature and chemical-selective imaging”, J. Magn. Reson. 204 (2), 208-18 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.jmr.2010.02.021 | PMID: 20303808
  • R.T. Branca, Z.I. Cleveland, B. Fubara, C. Kumar, C. Leuschner, R.R. Maronpot, W.S. Warren, B. Driehuys, “Molecular MRI for sensitive and specific detection of lung metastases”, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107 (8):3693-7 (2010). doi: 10.1073/pnas.1000386107 | PMID: 20142483


  • I.R. Piletic, T.E. Matthews, W.S. Warren, “Estimation of molar absorptive and pigment sizes for eumelanin and pheomelanin using femtosecond transent absorption spectroscopy”, J. Chem. Phys. 131 (18), 181106 (2009). doi: 10.1063/1.3265861 |  PMID: 19916591
  • E.R. Jenista, A.M. Stokes, R.T. Branca, W.S. Warren, “Optimized, unequal pulse spacing in multiple echo sequences improves refocusing in magnetic resonance”, J. Chem. Phys. 131 (20), 204510   doi: 10.1063/1.3263196 | PMID: 19947697
  • W.S. Warren, E.R. Jenista, R.T. Branca, “Increasing hyperpolarized spin lifetimes through true singlet eigenstates”, Science 323,1711-4 (2009). doi: 10.1126/science.1167693 | PMID: 19325112
  • R.T. Branca, W. S. Warren, “Solvent suppression without crosspeak attenuation in iZQC experiments”, Chem. Phys. Lett.470 (4-6), 325-331 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.cplett.2009.01.063
  • R.T. Branca, Y.  M. Chen, V. Mouraviev, G. Galiana, E. Jenista, C. Kumar, C. Leuschner, W. S. Warren, “iDQC anisotropy map imaging for tumor tissue characterization in vivo”, Magn. Reson. in Med61, 937-943 (2009). doi: 10.1002/mrm.21925 |  PMID: 19215050
  • T. Ye, D. Fu, W.S. Warren, “Nonlinear Absorption Microscopy”, Photocem Photobiol. 85 (3), 631-45 (2009). doi: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2008.00514.x | PMID: 19170931
  • E.R Jenista, R.T. Branca, W.S. Warren, “Hyperpolarized Carbon-Carbon Intermolecular Multiple Quantum Coherence”, J. Magn. Reson196 (1), 74-7 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.jmr.2008.09.027 | PMID: 18926750


  • D. Fu, T.E. Matthews, T. Ye, I.R. Piletic, W.S. Warren, “Label-free In Vivo Optical Imaging of Microvasculature and Oxygenation Level”, J. Biomed. Opt. 13 (4), 040503 (2008). doi: 10.1117/1.2968260 | PMID: 19021307
  • G. Galiana, R.T. Branca, E.R. Jenista, and W.S. Warren, “Accurate Temperature Imaging Based on Intermolecular Coherences in Magnetic Resonance”, Science 322, 421-424 (2008). doi: 10.1126/science.1163242 | PMID: 18927389
  • R.T. Branca, G. Galiana, and W.S. Warren, “Enhanced Nonlinear Magnetic Resonance Signals Via Square Wave Dipolar Fields”, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 054502 (2008). doi: 10.1063/1.2962976 | PMID: 18698909
  • I.R. Piletic, M.C. Fischer, P. Samineni, G. Yurtsever, and W.S. Warren, “Rapid Pulse Shaping With Homodyne Detection For Measuring Nonlinear Optical Signals”, Optics Letters 33, 1482-1484 (2008). doi: 10.1364/OL.33.001482 | PMID: 18594672
  • M.C. Fischer, H.C. Liu, I.R. Piletic, and W.S. Warren, “Simultaneous Self-Phase Modulation and Two-Photon Absorption Measurement by a Spectral Homodyne Z-Scan Method”, Optics Express 16 (6), 4192-4205 (2008). doi: 10.1364/OE.16.004192 | PMID: 18542515
  • J. C. Davis, M. R. Fetterman, W. S. Warren and D. Goswami, “Propagation of complex shaped ultrafast pulses in highly optically dense samples”,  J Chem Phys. 128, 154312 (2008). doi: 10.1063/1.2894871 | PMID: 18433214
  • R.T. Branca, C. Leuschner, C. Kumar, B. Fubara, W. Warren, and B. Driehuys, “Hyperpolarized 3He MRI to Detect Lung Metastases Targeted by Magnetic Nanoparticles”, Proceedings of ISMRM16  (2008). PDF
  • D. Fu, T. Ye, T.E. Matthews, J. Grichnik, L. Hong, J.D. Simon, and W.S. Warren, “Probing Skin Pigmentation Changes with Transient Absorption Imaging of Eumelanin and Pheomelanin”, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054036 (2008). doi: 10.1117/1.2976424 | PMID: 19021416
  • M.C. Fischer, H.C. Liu, I.R. Piletic, Y. Escobedo-Lozoya, R. Yasuda, and W.S. Warren, “Self-Phase Modulation Signatures of Neuronal Activity”, Optics Letters 33 (3), 219-221 (2008). doi: 10.1364/OL.33.000219 | PMID: 18246134


  • J.H. Cho, S. Ahn, C. Lee, K.S. Hong, K.C. Chung, S.K. Chang, C. Cheong, and W.S. Warren, “Magnetic Resonance Microscopic Imaging Based on High-Order Intermolecular Multiple-Quantum Coherences”, Magnetic Resonance Imaging 25 (5), 626-633  (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.mri.2006.09.005 | PMID: 17540273
  • D. Fu, T. Ye, T.E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W.S. Warren, “Two-Color, Two-Photon, and Excited-State Absorption Microscopy”, Journal of Biomedical Optics 12 (5), 054004 (2007). doi: 10.1117/1.2780173 | PMID: 17994892
  • D. Fu, T. Ye, T.E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, L. Hong, J.D. Simon, and W.S. Warren, “Two-Color Excited-State Absorption Imaging of Melanins”, in Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging – Proceedings of SPIE 6424, 642402 (2007). doi: 10.1117/12.698756
  • W.S. Warren, D. Fu, T. Ye, H. Liu, and M.C. Fischer, “Tissue Imaging with Shaped Femtosecond Laser Pulses”, in Ultrafast Phenomena XV, 807-809  (2007). doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-68781-8_257
  • R.T. Branca, G. Galiana, and W.S. Warren, “Signal Enhancement in CRAZED Experiments”, Journal of Magnetic Resonance 187 (1), 38-43  (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.jmr.2007.02.017 | PMID: 17448714
  • M.C. Fischer, H. Liu, I.R. Piletic, T. Ye, R. Yasuda, and W.S. Warren, “Self-Phase Modulation and Two-Photon Absorption Imaging of Cells and Active Neurons”, in Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging – Proceedings of SPIE 6442, 64421J  (2007). doi: 10.1117/12.698693
  • W.S. Warren, M.C. Fischer, and T. Ye, “Novel Nonlinear Contrast Improves Deep-Tissue Microscopy”, Laser Focus World 43 (6), 99-103 (2007).  LFW 43
  • C. Li, W. Wagner, M. Ciocca, and W.S. Warren, “Multiphoton Femtosecond Phase-Coherent Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy”, Journal of Chemical Physics 126 (16), 164307 (2007). https:/ | PMID: 17477602
  • D. Fu, T. Ye, T.E. Matthews, B.J. Chen, G. Yurtserver, and W.S. Warren, “High-Resolution in Vivo Imaging of Blood Vessels without Labeling”, Optics Letters 32 (18), 2641-2643 (2007). doi: 10.1364/OL.32.002641 | PMID: 17873920


  • W. S. Warren, “Coherence, Correlation and Entanglement: Have We Learned Anything from NMR Quantum Computing?”, Quantum Computing, Backaction 2007 (AIP Conference Proceedings, volume 864) 324-330 (2006).
  • W.S. Warren, “Spectroscopy: Shifting Light with Spin”, Nature 442 (7106), 990 (2006). doi: 10.1038/442990a | PMID: 16943825
  • T. Ye, G. Yurtsever, M. Fischer, J.D. Simon, and W.S. Warren, “Imaging Melanin by Two-Photon Absorption Microscopy”, in Proceedings of SPIE 6089, 60891 (2006). doi: 10.1117/12.646139